The Structure and Main Parameters of Escalator-1

The Structure and Main Parameters of Escalator-1
Conai Escalator from 2017-09-08
What is the Structure and Main Parameters of Escalator-1
The structural characteristics of escalators and classification
 1. Structural features
  Escalator is an electric drive, in a certain direction to a large number of continuous delivery of passengers of the open transport machinery. With a compact, safe and reliable, easy installation and maintenance features.
  Therefore, in the traffic and large concentration of places, such as stations, docks, shopping malls, etc., to be widely used.
2. Classification
    Escalator classification methods are many, from different angles to points.
    (1) by driving the classification: a chain (end drive) and rack and pinion (intermediate drive) two categories.
    (2) According to the use of conditions: a common type (less than 140h per week running time) and public transport (more than  140h per week running time).
    (3) according to the lifting height points: a maximum lifting height of up to 8m, and up to 25m in the lifting height and up to 65m  maximum lifting height of three categories.
    (4) according to the running speed points: a constant speed and adjustable speed two.
    (5) according to the runway trajectory points: a linear (traditional), spiral, runway and rotary spiral type 4.
2. the main parameters of escalators and spare parts
   1. The main parameters
   (1) Rated speed (Y /): Run speed (m / s) of the rung in the no-load condition. Generally 0.5m / s, 0.65m / s and 0.75m / s.
   (2) Inclination (α): The maximum angle, usually 30 ° or 35 °, of the step run and the horizontal plane.
   (3) Lifting height (H): The vertical height difference between the upper base point and the lower base point of the escalator (m).
   (4) Cascade width (B): Cascade nominal width (mm).
   (5) Cascade level (L): Horizontal running distance of the escalator inlet (mm).
   When v = 0.50 m / s, L ≥ 800mm;
   When v ≤ 0.65 m / s, L ≥ 1200mml
   When v ≤ 0.75m / s, L ≥ 1600mm.
  2. Main parts
   The escalator consists of trusses, drive reducers, actuators, tensioners, rail systems, steps, cascade chains, racks, handrails and various safety devices.
    (1) Truss (Fig. 6.2): ​​It is the base of the escalator, and all the components of the escalator are fitted in the truss of this metal structure. Generally with angle steel, steel or square and rectangular tube made of welding.                  There are two kinds of integral welded truss and split welded truss.
Split trusses are generally composed of three parts, namely the upper platform, the middle truss and the lower platform. Among them, the upper and lower platforms are relatively standard, but because of the rated speed and the different levels involved in the cascade level, affecting the platform and the next stage of the straight line length. The length of the intermediate truss will vary depending on the lifting height.
    In order to ensure that the escalator is in good working condition, the truss must have sufficient rigidity, which allows the deflection to be 1 ‰ of the distance between the upper and lower support. If necessary, the escalator truss should be located in the middle support, it not only play a supporting role, but also with the truss of the expansion and contraction of self-regulation.
    (2) drive (to chain as an example): drive mainly by the motor, worm gear reducer, sprocket, brake (brake) and other components. On the installation of the motor can be divided into vertical and horizontal, the current use of vertical drive the majority of escalators. The advantages are: compact, small footprint, light weight, easy to repair; low noise, small vibration, especially the overall drive (Figure 6.3), the motor rotor shaft and worm coaxial, and thus a good balance , And can eliminate vibration and reduce noise; carrying capacity, small lift the height of the escalator can be driven by a drive, the height of the escalator can be driven by two drives.
(3) drive device: drive device mainly by the drive sprocket, cascade sprocket, handrail sprocket, spindle and brake wheel or ratchet and other components. The device is powered from the drive, driven by the drive chain to drive the steps and handrails, in order to achieve the main movement of the escalator, and can brake in the emergency, to prevent passengers from slipping to ensure passenger safety.
The device is mounted on an upper platform (upper truss), as shown in Figure 6.4
(4) Tensioning device: As shown in Figure 6.5, the tensioning device consists of a sprocket wheel, a shaft, a tensioning car and a spring of an elongated step chain. Tension springs can be adjusted by the nut tension, so that       the cascade chain in the escalator running in a good working condition. When the cascade chain is broken or elongated, the rollers on the trolley are precisely guided to displace, causing the safety device (cascade chain       breakage) to function and the escalator stops immediately.
(5) rail: At present, a considerable part of the escalator with cold drawn angle as the escalator run and return rail. The use of foreign technology to introduce the production of escalator runners and return rails are cold- formed profiles, with a light weight, relative stiffness, high precision manufacturing,e easy assembly and adjustment.
    As a result of the use of a new type of cold-rolled rails and rails, reducing the step of the uplift operation, curve running and shaking operation, extending the life of the rung and roller. At the same time, it reduces the turning radius of the upper platform (upper truss) and the lower platform (lower truss) rails, and reduces the pressure on the guide wheels, the stepped sprockets to the rails, reduces the vertical acceleration, and extends the life of the rail system.
(6) Step chain: As shown in Figure 6.6, the cascad chain is supported by a support wheel with a permanent lubrication and the step wheels on the cascade chain can run smoothly on the sprocket of the rail system, drive and tensioner ; Also make the load distribution evenly, to prevent premature wear of the rail system, especially in the reverse zone two cascade chain connected by the cascade shaft to ensure the stability of the overall   operation of the cascade chain. The choice of the cascade chain should correspond to the height of the escalator. The load pressure of the chain pin is an important factor to prolong the service life of the cascade chain. The diameter of the chain pin must be selected reasonably to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the escalator.
(7) Step: step with the overall die-casting step and assembly-type step.
     ① The overall die-casting step: the overall die-casting step aluminum die-casting, foot pedal and start plate cast with ribs, anti-skid effect and adjacent cascade-oriented role. This type of rung is characterized by light weight (about half of the weight of the assembly cascade), the appearance of high quality, easy to manufacture, assembly and maintenance.
     ② Assembly type step: assembly steps by the foot pedal, the starting plate, the stent (above the die casting) and the base plate (stamping parts), such as the composition of the wheel, such as stainless steel step, manufacturing process complex, Shaped tolerance is poor, the weight is large, not easy to assemble and repair.
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